threefold human being
at the human skeleton a polarity can
be distinguished with a centre.
This observation induces us to have a
look at the threefoldness of man, where we can see
three functional organsystems. It is also an introduction to
the threefoldness of mammals.
The polarity of
skull and limbs
The human skeleton consists of a large number of differently
shaped bones. At first sight, the round head and the long
limbs with the chest and spine inbetween
strike us as three diferent parts of the
- The skull has a predominantly round
shape and the bones are curved plates that have grown together.
- The limbs consist of independent elongated tubular
bones. They radiate:
from top to bottom there are one humerus, two forearm bones, 3 to
4 bones in the hand and 5 fingers.
skull are the brains and the senses, they are protected by
the bones. Whereas the
muscles of the limbs are on the outside; the bones do not
protect the muscles. Another difference is that the limbs
are in motion, in the skull rest prevails.
The processes within the skull are sense and nerve
needed. The temperature must remain constant and the blood
supply to the brains must be steady. In the limbs we do not need
awareness, they can function without it. The temperature may
change and the blood supply may be interrupted for a while
without irreparable damage. Damage to the
limbs is reversible, whereas damage tot the brains is in most cases
The middle: the
chest and spine
Between the skull and limbs are the ribs of the chest and the
spine. Like the bones in the
limbs ribs are elongated tubes; like those in the skull,
they are bent. With their oval shape they take an intermediate
position between the rounded head and the straight limbs. The chest as
a whole is oval in shape, too.
The thorax is not completely closed, but half-open. It gives
the heart and the lungs. The
ribs move while
breathing. We can influence the strength of our breathing by moving our
ribs and the muscles of our abdomen.The upper ribs are
firmly attached to the breastbone. Lower
connection is less firm as these ribs are connected to the cartilage of
the lower part of the breastbone. The two lower ribs are loose
the so-called floating ribs. Ribs
and chest take a
middle position between the skull and the limbs. They lie around the
heart and the lungs, but do not fully protect.
The heart takes care of
the blood circulation and beats about 72 times per minute. The lungs
provide the body with new air and we breathe about 12 times a minute.
Both are rhythmically moving organs.
The spine is in this area, too. The s-shaped spine consists of more
vertebrae that are all a
little bit different. The discs have a circular shape with protrusions,
a combination of the rounded form and the straight form. The
vertebrae are loosely joined together and the spine
is flexible. We may
call this: rhythm in form.
In the chest area, we see characteristics of both
polarities and a characteristic of its own, namely rhythm.
|shape of the bones
(ribs), round and
|function of the skeleton
||protects the brains
heart and lungs
|attaches the muscles
|recoverability organ tissue
1. Features of skull, thorax and limbs
of the functional organsystems
Based on the three parts of the skeleton, three functional
organsystems can be distinguised, that are associated with the
skeleton. We will see that each has its own characteristics.
In the head are the brains and the most important senses (eye, ear,
balance, smell, taste). The nervous-system
with the senses has its
centre in the skull and radiates to all parts of the body. We feel with
our little toe, too. The senses and the brains are
focused on observing and thinking. There is
no outward movement, but an inner, because the observations come to
consciousness and processes of thinking and imagination take place.
Movement of the brains is dangerous. A concussion heals with rest. When
we think, we should keep our head cool. Activity of the brain
sense organs produces little heat. It also costs little energy. Much
thinking even makes cold. Thinking and perception are
which have no effect on the environment. With thoughts
alone, nothing happens in the world.
The senses observe the surroundings and ourselves. By processing the
observations in our mind we come to consciousness of the environment
and ourselves. The senses are focused on the
outer world, the brains on the inner world where thinking
us define ourselves as different from the environment, demarcation
Although we observe in the present, what we
observe already exists. Because we can only observe what is there, the
senses are focused on the past. When we think, we think about
existing things. When we go somewhere new, we make an image
using existing observations. If something new is invented or
thought, it has to be made first to find out whether the idea is real
or a phantasy.
The rhythmic or
In the chest are the heart and the lungs. The heart keeps the blood in
motion. The lungs take in air and ensure
the supply of oxygen. The centre of the respiratory and circulatory
system is in the chest. Bloodvessels are found throughout the body,
oxygen. These are the organs which
are in automatic regular rhythmic motion. The chest protects the lungs
not cover them completely.
In the heart-lung system a shifted symmetry can be observed.
heart is not completely symmetrical and is off centre in the chest, in
lungs there are two lobes on the left and three on the right,
are they symmetrical. These organs respond to
experience. Of our heart and lungs we are semiconscious.
feel them when we focus
on them. The muscles in our abdomen and
the ribs can be moved consciously to intensify our breathing.
With the heart and lungs we connect ourselves rhythmically
with the present. Heart and lungs show our inner
state in the present and
our response to the environment. The lungs react to the
outsite world, the heart responds to the inner self. They
show and express how we feel. When we are startled, our
breathing falters. When we are
afraid, the heart beats faster and when we are relaxed,
that are connected to the limbs are the biggest we have.
They are the centre of
movement. On the
head, of course, there are also muscles. The movement in
the head area is, apart from the jaw, small. This applies to
breast area in a lesser degree. When muscles are working, they get
are cold, it
is wise not set them to deliver a great performance,
because of a high probability of damage. We can count
ourselves lucky that damaged
Movement of the muscles is an unconscious
activity that requires energy. If you know what you
want to do, the muscles do it for you. If you want to take a
glass of water, your muscles do it, you do not have to direct
or control them. If you want to write, you only have to think about the
words and your hand and fingers do it for you.
there are the stomach and digestive organs. Do they belong
chest or to the limbs? The digestive system is in movement,
but not rhythmic like breathing and the heartbeat.
It only becomes active after eating
and it works without us noticing it; digesting food in an unconscious
The stomach and the intestines in the abdomen are much more open than
heart and lungs are in the chest. Much like the muscles on the limbs,
so are the organs in the abdominal cavity open and exposed. The
digestive system digests food so that we can absorb the
and maintain our body. This is similar to what the limbs do. They make
items with existing substances and materials. What the
limbs do outsite the body, digestion does inside the
body, viz.: converting substance and transform it to our needs. Both
intervene in- and change the world, both are unconscious
Digestive organs and limbs belong together. Through the metabolic-limb
system there is an intense connection to the
material world. Matter is transformed and converted to our wishes and
limbs are active in the environment, the digestive system in our
body. Because everything that is made is new (it was not
functional system is focused on the future. Something
only happens when we become active, when we do it. We don't do
things unless we want to do them. Doing or willing is the activity that
with this system.
This functional system also includes the reproductive organs.
||doing / willing
2. Features of the three functional organ systems
and the soul
Thinking, feeling and doing or willing form the three
faculties of the
soul and their physical basis is in the three functional
organ systems. The soul can be seen as the link between body and mind.
seen as an eternal spirit or individuality that has a body. To use the
body the soul is the mediator for the mind. Of the three faculties,
thinking is closest to the mind and doing is closest to the body.
Thinking and observing are processes that require
consciousness and vigilance. If one is without attention,
tired, ill or sleepy
it will be more difficult to think or observe well.
It is possible to follow ones thoughts all the way. By
can understand other people, organisms, thoughts or things. Through
demarcate ourselves from the world outside. Thought is the
basis for self-awareness. It has already been mentioned that one can
only think about existing things. Awareness,
wakefulness and demarcation
are concepts that belong to thinking.
can never feel as clear as one can think. Our feelings are more
diffuse, they are
semi-conscious and remain in a dreamworld. We can
our feelings by thinking. Feelings arise
immediately, we can't do much about them. They are just there and they
are a reaction to what one experiences. By feeling
compassion, one is
able to connect with another person. With our feeling we are able to
connect and let loose in a rhythmic manner, one can also say: in a
breathing manner. Semi-consciousness,
a rhythmic or breathing
connection are concepts that go with feeling.
Doing or willing
Limbs are made for creative processes. The limbs and the digestive
organs do their work without evidence of awareness. A sentence is
thought and the hands type the words automatically, without having to
think about what they must do. It is even the
other way around: if you were to instruct your
fingers consciously, typing would cost much effort
and time. We are sleepy in our limbs when we accomplice an
action. It happens
without active involvement. We constantly make new
things and are creative. Through the will we interfere
in the world. Unconsciousness,
creation are concepts connected to doing or willing.
of the head
We can also examine whether threefoldness can be found in the skeleton
at another level, e.g. in the head.
The skull has an overall round shape. In the facial
skull, we do not
see that. The lower jaw is dominated by elongated shapes. The lower jaw
is the mobile part of the skull and the bones
are not round as in the limbs, but flat. The mouth is the
beginning of the digestive tract.
Between brain skull and lower jaw is the area of the nose and the inner
(dental cavities, nasal passages, sinuses) involved in breathing. With
every breath fresh air is inhaled.
There is pain when a cavity is obstructed (sinusitis), because in that
case there is no free flowing air. We can define
blushing as an expression of feeling, also
visible in the middle of the face.
the nerve-sense area, which is mainly the skull, this distribution is
- the brain skull is round and
contains the brains and
some senses, it is the nerve-sense area,
- the cavities and the nose form
the heart-lung area,
- the mouth and the lower jaw form
the elongated and
mobile metabolic-limb area.
We can even go further and take a look at the mouth. The lips, the tip
the tongue and the teeth are very sensitive. We take food
our mouth. We wonder how it will taste and whether it is hard or soft,
warm or cold.
In the central part of the mouth these tastes
are determined. Whether we think it is delicious
and/or healthy or
not is defined here. Finally, the food reaches the
area, which is the unconscious area of metabolism. We do not taste
much anymore, only
notice it when something is too big or too hot, because then
the throat hurts. Swallowing
something like a big pill consciously is more difficult than
unconsciously. Here we see the three areas again. In the
judge (half-consciously) and in the throat: metabolism (unconsciously).
In the teeth we see threefoldness, too. The teeth are the most
sensitive, they feel the food, the canines are there for grip and the
grind food. The teeth are curved
in a row and the molars form a straight line.
From these examples can be seen that within the nerve-sense system of
the skull the same principles of the three organ
systems are found on another level, and that even inside the mouth
and teeth the three systems can be distinguished.
Rohen (Morphologie des
menschlichen Organismus) and the internet)